Wednesday, March 20, 2013
Chronology of the Caroline War
Charles VIII, King of France (reigned 1483-1498)
With respect to the character of King Charles VIII, I recall reading somewhere that he was an "inoffensive, pleasure-loving ninny." The description is fixed in my mind, but I can't for the life of me remember from whence it sprung. Be that as it may, his Italian adventure ( the Caroline War) was very destructive of life and property and initiated decades of turmoil on the Italian peninsula. In examining this sub-war of the Great Italian Wars, I found it useful at the outset to compile a chronology of the conflict.
The Caroline War (Charles VIII’s Invasion of Italy [1494-1496])
Sep. 2, 1494 - Charles VIII of France invades Italy. The French army crossed the Alps from Briançon to Oulx via the Col de Montgenèvre (Monginevro Pass).
Jan. 1, 1495 - The French army enters Rome.
Feb. 22, 1495 - Charles reaches his objective, the disputed Kingdom of Naples.
Mar. 31, 1495 - Formation of the Holy League to oppose the French
May 20, 1495 - The French main force departs from Naples.
June 21, 1495 - Battle of Seminara I
July 6, 1495 - Battle of Fornovo (The Taro)
July 17-Sept. 24, 1495 - Siege of Novara
Oct. 9, 1495 – The Peace of Vercelli ends the Caroline War in the north of Italy, but the fate of the Kingdom of Naples remains to be settled.
Oct. 25, 1495 – The French main army recrosses the Alps using the Monginevro Pass.
July 25, 1496 – The French Neapolitan army, under the Viceroy Montpensier, capitulates at Atella after a brief siege, effectively ending operations in the south of Italy.